Archaic Sparta and Messenia — 10th-9th centuries bce
  • Messenia and Laconia Map In Sparta, the sons of Eurysthenes and Procles — Agis and Eurypon — established the Spartan royal houses and the dual kingship around the turn of the tenth century (950-850 bce).
  • Sparta gradually subjugated the whole of Laconia: (1) the capture of the border territory of Aegys (see map) secured the upper Eurotas valley; Teleclus, an Agiad king, brought the central plain under Laconian control by taking Amyclae, Pharis and Geronthrae (see map); (3) Alcamenes, son of Teleclus, subjugated Helos (see map), which brought the lower Eurotas plain under Spartan rule and gave Sparta access to the sea.
  • The whole east coast of the Peloponnese and the island of Cythera were controlled by Argos; hostilities between Argos and Sparta began at this time and continued over the next two centuries. Messenia Map
  • Messenia was settled first by Leleges (one of several populations identified by ancient writers as pre-Hellenic), whose capital was at Andania in the north of Messenia.
  • In the prehistoric era, Aeolians from Thessaly migrated to Messenia and were established at Pylos in the southwestern part of Messenia; this was the origin of the Neleid house, to which Nestor, son of Neleus, belonged.
  • After the Dorian migration, Cresphontes moved the palace to Stenyclarus.
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