THE FUTURE TENSE

 

FORMATION:
The future is formed by adding sigma to the verb stem before the same primary endings that are used for the present.

PRIMARY ENDINGS

ACTIVE
I
-w
we
-omen
you (s)
-eij
you (pl)
-ete
he, she
-ei
they
-ousi(n)
text place holder
MIDDLE
I
-mai
we
-meqa
you (s)
-h|
you (pl)
-sqe
he, she
-tai
they
-ntai

CHANGES IN VERB STEM

  • Verb stems ending in a mute consonant alter as follows:

    the consonants
    writing
    e.g.
    p, b, f
    combine with s to become
    y
     

    ble/pw, ble/yw

    tri/bw, tri/yw

    gra&fw, gra&yw

     

    k, g, x
    combine with s to become
    c
     

    dida&skw, dida&cw

    a)/gw, a)/cw

    e)/xw, e(/cw

     

    t, d, q, z*

    (*see on -i/zw verbs below)

    drop out before s
     

    a#ptw, a#yw*

    speu&dw, speu&sw

    pei/qw, pei/sw

    h(suxa&zw, h(suxa&sw

    (*note that for this type of verb, t drops out and s combines with the p of the resulting stem)

     

  • Verbs ending in -i/zw drop z and add -e/w (becoming e-contract verbs in the future); e.g., nomi/zw (present), nomiw~ (future).
  • Verbs stems ending in a liquid (l, m, n, r) add e/w (becoming e-contract verbs in the future) and also sometimes alter their stems; e.g., ba&llw (present), balw~ (future); ne/mw (present), nemw~ (future); me/nw (present), menw~ (future); diafqei/rw (present), diafqerw~ (future).
  • Contract verbs lengthen the final vowel of the stem and add s; e.g., poie/w (present), poih&sw (future); tima&w (present), timh&sw (future); dhlo&w (present), dhlw&sw (future).