THE AORIST TENSE
(FIRST OR WEAK AORIST)

 

FORMATION:
The first (weak) aorist is formed by:
(1) augmenting the verb stem (same as for the imperfect)
(2) adding sigma to the verb stem
(3) adding first aorist endings to the resulting aorist stem.

 

FIRST AORIST ENDINGS

ACTIVE
I
-sa
we
-samen
you (s)
-saj
you (pl)
-sate
he, she
-se(n)
they
-san
text place holder
MIDDLE
I
-sa&mhn
we
-sa&meqa
you (s)
-sw
you (pl)
-sasqe
he, she
-sato
they
-santo

CHANGES IN VERB STEM FOR THE FIRST AORIST (SAME AS FOR THE FUTURE)

  • Verb stems ending in a mute consonant alter as follows:

    the consonants
    writing
    e.g.
    p, b, f
    combine with s to become
    y
     

    ble/pw, e)/bleya

    tri/bw, e)/triya

    gra&fw, e)/graya

     

    k, g, x
    combine with s to become
    c
     

    dida&skw, e)/di/daca

    le/gw, e)/leca

    de/xomai, e)deca&mhn

     

    t, d, q, z
    drop out before s
     

    a#ptw, h#ya*

    speu&dw, e)/speu&sa

    pei/qw, e)/pei/sa

    h(suxa&zw, h(su&xasa

    nomi/zw, e)no&misa

    (*note that for this type of verb, t drops out and s combines with the p of the resulting stem)

     

  • Verbs stems ending in a liquid (l, m, n, r) sometimes alter their stems and add first aorist endings without s; e.g., ne/mw (present), e)/neima (first aorist); me/nw (present), e)/meina (first aorist); diafqei/rw (present), die/fqeira (first aorist).
  • Contract verbs lengthen the final vowel of the stem and add s; e.g., poie/w (present), e0poi/hsa (aorist); tima&w (present), e0ti/mhsa (aorist); dhlo&w (present), e0dh&lwsa (aorist).